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In War Communism, the state had assumed control of all means of production, exchange and communication. All land had been declared nationalized by the Decree on Landfinalized in the Land Codewhich also set collectivization as the long-term goal.
Although the peasants had been allowed to work the land they held with the production surplus to their needs being bought by the state on the state's termsthe peasants cut production; whereupon food was requisitioned.
Money gradually came to be replaced by barter and a system of coupons. During this time, the state had controlled all large enterprises i.
The requisitioning of farm produce was replaced by a tax system a fixed proportion of the cropand the peasants were free to sell their surplus at a state-regulated price - although they were encouraged to join state farms Sovkhozesset up on land expropriated from nobles after the revolutionin which they worked for a fixed wage like workers in a factory.
Money came back into use, with new bank notes being issued and backed by gold. The NEP had been Lenin's response to a crisis.
Between February 21 and March 17,the sailors in Kronstadt had mutinied. In addition, the Russian Civil Warwhich had been the main reason for the introduction of War Communism, had virtually been won; and so controls could be relaxed.
In the s, there was a great debate between BukharinTomsky and Rykov on the one hand, and TrotskyZinoviev and Kamenev on the other.
The former group considered that the NEP provided sufficient state control of the economy and sufficiently rapid development, while the latter argued in favour of more rapid development and greater state control, taking the view, among other things, that profits should be shared among all people, and not just among a privileged few.
Inat the 14th Party CongressStalin, as he usually did in the early days, stayed in the background but sided with the Bukharin group. However, later, inhe changed sides, supporting those in favour of a new course, with greater state control.
Plans Plan is law, fulfillment is duty, over-fulfillment is honor! Each five-year plan dealt with all aspects of development: However, the emphasis varied from plan to plan, although generally the emphasis was on power electricitycapital goods, and agriculture. There were base and optimum targets.
Efforts were made, especially in the third plan, to move industry eastward to make it safer from attack during World War II.
Because meeting the goals of the five-year plans had top priority as a measure of progress toward a communist utopia, official lying about productivity became part of the economic system.
The attempt to turn an illiterate peasant society into an advanced industrial economy in a single decade brought intense suffering, but hardship was tolerated because, as one worker put it, Soviet workers believed in the need for "constant struggle, struggle, and struggle" to achieve a Communist society.
These five-year plans outlined programs for huge increases in the output of industrial goods. Stalin warned that without an end to economic backwardness "the advanced countries This was intended to improve the efficiency of agriculture and eliminate the " kulak " class of landowners, which was deemed hostile to the Soviet regime, while improving the position of poor peasants.
The disruption and repression associated with collectivization was a primary cause of the famine ofwhich resulted in millions of deaths. From tothe number of Soviet workers in industry, construction, and transport grew from 4. During this period, the first purges were initiated targeting many people working for Gosplan.
Second plan, — Because of the successes made by the first plan, Stalin did not hesitate with going ahead with the second five-year plan inalthough the official start-date for the plan was The second five-year plan gave heavy industry top priority, putting the Soviet Union not far behind Germany as one of the major steel-producing countries of the world.
Further improvements were made in communications, especially railways, which became faster and more reliable. As was the case with the other five-year plans, the second was not as successful, failing to reach the recommended production levels in such areas as the coal and oil industries.
The second plan employed incentives as well as punishments and the targets were eased as a reward for the first plan being finished ahead of schedule in only four years. With the introduction of childcare, mothers were encouraged to work to aid in the plan's success.By , he stood alone atop the Party and the Soviet Union.
Once in power, Stalin began a drive to industrialize and modernize the Soviet Union, with a Five-Year Plan () based on Marxist principles championing government control of the economy.
Jul 31, · 3. Stalin Five Year Plan Essay Stalin: Operation Barbarossa and Stalin Intro Historians have debated the role of Stalin in the Soviet Union’s victory in the Great Patriotic War of The third five-year plan ran for only 3 years, up to , when Germany invaded the Soviet Union during the Second World War.
As war approached, more resources were put into developing armaments, tanks and weapons, as well as constructing additional military factories east of the Ural mountains. In the Soviet Union, the first Five-Year Plan (–32), implemented by Joseph Stalin, concentrated on developing heavy industry and collectivizing agriculture, at the cost of a drastic fall in consumer goods.
The second plan (–37) continued the objectives of the first. "The great task of the five-year plan for the development of the productive forces of the Soviet Union through rapid industrialization and steady strengthen- ing of the socialist elements in national economy is to attain and to surpass.
In , Joseph Stalin developed his first plan that concentrated on the development of the Soviet Union in the global economic spectrum.
Stalin proposed that electricity, coal, and iron production need be increased significantly in the following five years in order to compete with capitalist countries.