Though they shared many broad similarities, such as agricultural society, polytheistic religions and written traditions, they also had many differences. These contrasts included geographic orientation, cultural emphases, political organization and other aspects. Geographic Orientation Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations differed in terms of their physical geography, and this had noticeable impacts on their societies.
Enjoy the Famous Daily Mesopotamia and Egypt: Bundles of reeds can be bound together to form pillars and beams. Their tops can even be bent inwards and tied to shape an arch or a dome. And the spaces in the frame can be filled with smaller branches and mud to complete a weather-proof shelter.
Even the more important buildings in both regions are probably constructed in this style for much of the fourth millennium BC.
But the larger tombs and temples of the third millennium require brick and later in Egypt stone. Sun-dried mud brick, as used in Jericho as early as BC, is the building block of man's first monumental buildings - the ziggurats or temples of Mesopotamia and the mastabas or early tombs of Egypt.
In southern Mesopotamia, near the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates, there is no local stone. Even the great ziggurat at Ur, built in about BC, is made entirely of brick. In Egypt, by contrast, stone is plentiful.
It comes into use with the first pyramid. Egyptian mastabas and pyramids: These rectangular flat-roofed buildings, made of mud brick, cover the burial chamber. They also contain the supplies of food and other items which will be needed in the next world.
In about BC the pharaoh Zoser entrusts his chief minister, Imhotep, with the task of providing a royal tomb which is out of the ordinary. Imhotep builds a mastaba of stone in itself an innovation and then places on top five successively smaller rectangular mastabas.
In doing so he creates the first pyramid - the 'step pyramid' of Saqqara. The Saqqara pyramid uses stone in small pieces, almost as if it were still mud bricks.
But soon the pharaohs bring stone architecture to a peak of monumental grandeur in the pyramids at Giza. The stone is now cut in massive blocks, and the angle of the steps is filled in to give the true pyramid shape see Building methods in Egypt.
This is the largest building ever created by man and justly heads the list of the Seven Wonders of the World. From about BC the island of Crete is the dominant power in the region. Traces of its grandeur survive in the palace of Knossos.
From around the centre of inflence is at Mycenae, on the Greek mainland - a civilization renowned for the beehive tombs and massive palace architecture commissioned by its rulers.
Their fortress palaces are protected by walls of stone blocks, so large that only giants would seem capable of heaving them into place. This style of architecture has been appropriately named Cyclopean, after the Cyclopes a race of one-eyed giants encountered by Odysseus in the Odyssey.
The walls at Tiryns, said in Greek legend to have built by the Cyclopes for the legendary king Proteus, provide the most striking example.
At Mycenae it is the gateway through the walls which proclaims power, with two great lions standing above the massive lintel. By contrast the temples of ancient Egypt, almost as impressive in their scale, stand at the start of a lasting tradition in architecture. The great temples of Karnak and Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile at Thebes, have columns and architraves of colossal proportions.
This is stone architecture at its most monumental. But with the Egyptian instinct for tradition, many of the columns are decorated in imitation of earlier versions in wood or bundled reed. There are palm leaf capitals, and ribbed fluting to suggest reeds.
These temples are built and added to over a long period.
But the grandeur which now remains is mainly from the two centuries after BC much of it designed to celebrate the military victories of pharaohs of the New Kingdomas is the extraordinary rock-cut temple of Abu Simbel.
Greek architecture will later refine the ponderous elements in this ancient Egyptian style, slimming the fat pillars, formalizing the decoration, introducing better balance and proportion. As a result the most lasting of all architectural conventions - the pillar, with a decorated top or 'capital', supporting a horizontal cross beam - is usually thought of as Greek.
But the Egyptians are the pioneers. At Abu Simbel a sloping sandstone rock rises high above the Nile. Ramses' sculptors and labourers are given the task of hacking into the rock face - to expose first four colossal seated statues of the pharaoh himself each some 65 ft highto be followed, as they cut further back, by the flat facade against which these great sculptures are to be seen.
With the imposing front of the temple thus achieved, the next stage is even more remarkable. A tall rectangular cavity is cut into the centre of the facade at ground level.
As the work of excavation continues, this space will become the massive doorway to an interior chamber yet the imitation lintel of the door does not even reach to the knees of the four seated statues. When the work is finally done, three connecting chambers recede behind this door - together stretching ft into the hillside.
A corridor through the first great hall is formed by four pairs of pillars, left in place to support the rock above.Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared. The Origins Of Civilizations.
Edited By: Robert Guisepi. Ancient Egypt. Besides Mesopotamia, a second civilization grew up in northeastern Africa, along the Nile. River. Egyptian civilization, formed by B.C., benefited from trade and.
Differences Between Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt had a different political structure from Mesopotamia. In ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh was considered to be the representative of the gods on earth.
Comparison of Ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian Art Words Jul 30th, 6 Pages The artworks of Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are both strikingly different and similar at .
Transcript of Comparing Mesopotamian and Egyptian Architecture. Comparing Mesopotamian and Egyptian Architecture By Lincoln and Rayyan Introduction All in all both cultures had a unique but different view of architecture and I believe that both of they furthered architecture in modern day.
Egyptian and Mesopotamian Architecture The Pyramids The Pyramids were constructed during an era of great economic prosperity and stability in Ancient Egypt. Their intended purpose was to provide the Pharaoh's spirit with a place to go when they died.
Mesopotamian architecture is used today when we use bricks and detailed building plans. Egyptian architecture is used today when we use wheeled carts and excellent craftsmen. Architecture greatly affected the culture of Mesopotamia and Egypt.