Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound — they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: This article will briefly describe each of these methods, their advantages, and their drawbacks.
Eisenhardt 's methodological work. Yin 's guidelines and making positivist assumptions. There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches. Case selection and structure[ edit ] An average, or typical case, is often not the richest in information.
An overview of the types of case study designs is provided along with general recommendations for writing the research questions, developing propositions, determining the “case” under study, binding the case and a discussion of data sources and triangulation. A way of combining data from many different research studies. A meta-analysis is a statistical process that combines the findings from individual studies. Example: Anxiety outcomes after physical activity interventions: meta-analysis findings. Conn V. Nurs Res. May-Jun;59(3) Systematic Review A summary of the clinical literature. Case control studies are studies in which patients who already have a specific condition are compared with people who do not have the condition. The researcher looks back to identify factors or exposures that might be associated with the illness.
In clarifying lines of history and causation it is more useful to select subjects that offer an interesting, unusual or particularly revealing set of circumstances. A case selection that is based on representativeness will seldom be able to produce these kinds of insights.
When selecting a case for a case study, researchers will therefore use information-oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling. Alternatively it may be chosen because of researchers' in-depth local knowledge; where researchers have this local knowledge they are in a position to "soak and poke" as Richard Fenno put it,  and thereby to offer reasoned lines of explanation based on this rich knowledge of setting and circumstances.
Three types of cases may thus be distinguished for selection: Key cases Outlier cases Local knowledge cases Whatever the frame of reference for the choice of the subject of the case study key, outlier, local knowledgethere is a distinction to be made between the subject and the object of the case study.
The subject is the "practical, historical unity" through which the theoretical focus of the study is being viewed. Thus, for example, if a researcher were interested in US resistance to communist expansion as a theoretical focus, then the Korean War might be taken to be the subject, the lens, the case study through which the theoretical focus, the object, could be viewed and explicated.
Gary Thomas thus proposes a typology for the case study wherein purposes are first identified evaluative or exploratorythen approaches are delineated theory-testing, theory-building or illustrativethen processes are decided upon, with a principal choice being between whether the study is to be single or multiple, and choices also about whether the study is to be retrospective, snapshot or diachronic, and whether it is nested, parallel or sequential.
The typology thus offers many permutations for case-study structure. These are, to a differentiable degree, similar to the case study in that many contain reviews of the relevant literature of the topic discussed in the thorough examination of an array of cases published to fit the criterion of the report being presented.
These case reports can be thought of as brief case studies with a principal discussion of the new, presented case at hand that presents a novel interest. In a case where the market of any organisation is in a messy state, the agency will always seek to find out some of the reasons why the scenario is that way.
They will have to gather information that may help them in solving such issues. For this to be fully achieved, one must be able to carry out a market research to establish where the problem is. This, therefore, calls for the different methods which can be used in a situation where one wants to conduct a marketing research.
The organisations have to choose one of the available techniques so that they can thoroughly conduct their investigations. Some of the primary methods that would be used included interviews, surveys, focus groups, observations and in some cases use field trials.
Types of case studies[ edit ] In public-relations research, three types of case studies are used: Under the more generalized category of case study exist several subdivisions, each of which is custom selected for use depending upon the goals of the investigator. These types of case study include the following: These are primarily descriptive studies.
They typically utilize one or two instances of an event to show the existing situation.Types of Case Studies [Page 9] The case study approach presented is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary problem within its real-life context. A way of combining data from many different research studies.
A meta-analysis is a statistical process that combines the findings from individual studies. Example: Anxiety outcomes after physical activity interventions: meta-analysis findings. Conn V. Nurs Res. May-Jun;59(3) Systematic Review A summary of the clinical literature.
In order to find the best possible evidence, it helps to understand the basic designs of research studies. The following basic definitions and examples of clinical research designs follow the “levels of evidence.” Case Series and Case Reports. Case control studies are studies in which patients who already have a specific condition are compared with people who do not have the condition.
The researcher looks back to identify factors or exposures that might be associated with the illness. Different Types of Case Studies.
There are several types of case studies, each differing from each other based on the hypothesis and/or thesis to be proved.
It is also possible for types of case studies to overlap each other. Each of the following types of cases can be used in any field or discipline. Research Study Types There are many different types of research studies, and each has distinct strengths and weaknesses.
In general, randomized trials and cohort studies provide the best information when looking at the link between a certain factor (like diet) and a health outcome (like heart disease).