Posted on by Sword of Apollo Modern political debates, from the 18th Century up until today, are full of appeals to the ideas of individualism and collectivism, whether open or merely implied.
Hong Kong Chinese or Australian Chinese.
Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, These results were consistent with the higher level of collectivism measured in the Australian Chinese. Explanations are in the context of migrant status. In this light, at least two sources of worthiness feeling are acknowledged. One source of worthiness feeling is self-esteem, which refers to the degree to which an individual experiences oneself as worthy and capable , and has been substantially demonstrated as positively associated with wellbeing e.
Another source of worthiness feeling is col- lective self-esteem CSE. Such worthiness is derived from membership of social groups   and also found to have positive tie with wellbeing e.
However, their relative importance as source of worthiness tends to vary as a function of differential cultural dimension, viz. Given self- esteem is related to individual attributes, it appears to be the dominant source of worthiness feeling in the West- ern, individualist societies  .
Contrarily, as CSE is the evaluation of self-worthiness based on social groups, it is found to have higher dominance in the Eastern, collectivist culture . In view of the above, this study in- tends to examine the relative importance of self-esteem and CSE in predicting subjective wellbeing SWBre- spectively for the Hong Kong Chinese and Australian Chinese, by embedding in a revised homeostatic model of SWB.
This model integrates the affective content, happy and excitedcognitive sel f-esteem, optimism and L. Lai perceived control and experiential factors in relating to SWB . Normative Levels of Subjective Well-Bein g SWB is defined as the affective and cognitive evaluation people make about how happy and satisfied they are with their lives  .
Within psychology, there are cumulative studies supporting the view of SWB as rela- tively stable and moderately positive e. One of the first studies to indicate this stable positivity  combined the population means from 16 life satisfaction studies conducted in Western nations.
Using the mean values from each survey as data yielded a mean of 75 points and a standard devi- ation SD of 2. This down- ward expansion is due to two different influences. One is the effect of poverty and disadvantage in economically underdeveloped countries. The second is the downward influence of cultural response bias, acting particularly within Confucian-based cultures .
Similar to core affect, HPMood e xists without reference to objects or events . It is proposed as a genetically determined, constant positive affective background, that pervades many thought processes but most especially those that are evaluative of personal and general characteristics.
Based on the above conceptualization and use of structural equ- ation modelling, Davern et al. Lai 10 Regarding the three cognitive buffers of self-esteem, optimism and perceived control, they are not only strongly perfused with HPMood but also have a cognitive component which is responsible for adjusting each buffer in order to defend HPMood .
That is, they are in intimate interaction with momentary experience and assist in the process of defending HPMood against life experiences . It is proposed that each of the cognitive buffers; namely, self-esteem, optimism and perceived control assists in the process of defending HPMood against life experiences .
Thus, people with high self-esteem sustain their wellbeing more effectively than those with low self-esteem   and optimists buffer against adversity by holding the global expectation that current difficulties will not last and things will get better with time  .
Additionally, when facing threatening events, people with high perceived control tend to hold positive belief about their ability to change a situation and achieve a desirable outcome  .
In short, the homeostatic model proposes that SWB is the output of interaction between HPMood, cognitive buffers and experiential factors. In this study, CSE will be added as a cognitive buffer in the homeostatic model and it is predicted that CSE will contribute unique SWB variance beyond the variance accounted for by the homeostatic factors.
Contrarily, CSE refers to the feelings and evaluations of self-worthiness based on the social groups, such as ethnic or work groups, of which one is a member. Hence, CSE is the value people place on themselves as members of their social groups .
The distinctiveness between these two concepts can be illustrated by their relative influence, as the domi- nant source of wo rth iness; in different cultures i. This kind of personal identity makes individuals view themselves as separate and autonomous entities. People are therefore emotion- ally independent from groups and the guiding principle for conduct is their individual interest  .
Howev- er, in the collectivist societies, individuals derive their identity from their social groups. Their social identity, so derived, lets them view themselves as interconnected and embedded in interdependent social relationships.Understanding the Individualism-Collectivism Cleavage and its Effects: Lessons from Cultural Psychology correlation between trust and individualism and these behavio ral difference may explain.
Note: Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. More Articles The Concept of . Continuing our series looking at issues of cross-cultural communication we are now going to turn our attention to the ideas of individualism and collectivism.
In individualist cultures, individual uniqueness and self-determination is valued.
Start studying Small Group Comm. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Explain the difference between these two dimensions and provide examples for each.
How does context affect verbal and nonverbal communication? individualism vs collectivism cultural value differences, power . Understanding the Individualism-Collectivism Cleavage and its Effects: Lessons from Cultural Psychology. Yuriy Gorodnichenko Gerard Roland University of California, Berkeley and NBER University of California, Berkeley and CEPR Abstract: In this paper, we survey our recent work showing theoretically and empirically a link between.
Ideally, try to find a balance between collectivism and individualism. The two are not mutually exclusive. For example, you can assign projects to departments and teams that will work together collectively to achieve the desired outcome.
Employees can still be evaluated individually based on their performance and contributions to the project.