According to Mullay's London's Scottish railways he had served on the Board for 22 years.
Cod[ edit ] Cod, supplemented by herring and lobster, was the economic mainstay until the late 20th century. Around the average annual export of dried cod-fish over a term of years was about , kilograms, with a value five and six million dollars. The cod were caught on the shores of the island, along the Labrador coast and especially on "the Banks.
They used small boats, with a tonnage of 54, The cod were taken by the hook-and-line, the seine, the cod-net or gill-net, the cod-trap and the bultow; Brazil and Spain were the largest customers. At first slow whales were caught by men hurling harpoons from small open boats.
Mechanization copied from Norway brought in cannon-fired harpoons, strong cables, and steam winches mounted on maneuverable, steam-powered catcher boats. They made possible the targeting of large and fast-swimming whale species that were taken to shore-based stations for processing.
The invention of the harpoon cannon Newfoundland railway the s and the westward expansion of the Scandinavian industry that resulted from the rapid depletion of their local stocks resulted in the emergence of the modern whaling industry in off Newfoundland and Labrador.
The industry was highly cyclical, with well-defined catch peaks in —05, —30, —51, and —72, after which Newfoundland railway bans shut it down.
It began with nets and traps, which gave way to the versatility of sail-driven ships around Sailing ships gave way to the greater range, power, and reliability of steam-driven vessels after Sheep grazing was common.
Other factories were of negligible importance before the s. He advocated closer economic ties with the United States, and distrusted London for ignoring the island's viewpoint on the controversial issue of allowing French fisherman to process lobsters on the French Coast, and for blocking a trade deal with the U.
Bond became Liberal Party leader in and premier in In he helped negotiate the end of all French fishing rights, and was reelected in a landslide.
His efforts to restrict the rights of American fishermen failed. His party was badly defeated in and Bond proved an ineffective opposition leader. Founded inthe FPU worked to increase the incomes of fishermen by breaking the merchants' monopoly on the purchase and export of fish and the retailing of supplies, and tried to revitalize the fishery through state intervention.
At its peak, it had more than 21, members in councils across the island; more than half of Newfoundland's fishers. It appealed to Protestants, and was opposed by Catholics.
Morris began a grandiose program of building branch railways, and adeptly handled the arbitration at the Hague tribunal on American fishing rights.
He introduced old-age pensions, and increased investment in education and rural infrastructure. In the prosperous and peaceful year of he was reelected. As a result of a wartime crisis over conscription, and the decline of his popularity due to accusations of wartime profiteering and conflict of interest, Morris set up an all-party war government in to oversee the duration of the war.
He retired inmoved to London, and was given a peerage as first Baron Morris, the only Newfoundlander ever so honored. The First World War was supported with near unanimity in Newfoundland. Recruiting was brisk, with 6, men joining the Newfoundland Regiment for overseas duty, 1, joining the Royal Navy, joined the Forestry Corps which did lumberjack work at homeplus another 3, men joined Canadian units, and 40 women became war nurses.
Without convening the legislature, Premier Morris and the royal governor, Sir Walter Davidson created the Newfoundland Patriotic Association, a non-partisan body involving both citizens and politicians, to supervise the war effort until With inflation soaring and corruption rampant, with prohibition of liquor in effect and fears of conscription apparent, the Association gave way to an all-party National Government.
The conscription issue was not as intense as in Canada, but it weakened the Fisherman's Union party, as its leaders supported conscription and most members opposed it. The Fisherman's party then merged into the Liberal-Unionist Party and faded away as an independent force.
The man Royal Newfoundland Regiment attacked as part of a British brigade. Most of the Newfoundlanders were killed or wounded without anyone in the regiment having fired a shot.
The state, church, and press romanticized the sacrifice Newfoundlanders had made in the war effort through ceremonies, war literature, and memorials, the most important of which was the Beaumont Hamel Memorial Park, which opened in France in The story of the heroic sacrifice of the regiment in served as a cultural inspiration.
The Liberal-Union coalition won 24 of 36 seats in the general election with half of the coalition's seats being won by Union candidates. It provided for four grades of certificated teachers. There was also a category of other "ungraded" teachers, who were unqualified and employed on a temporary basis.
British entrepreneurs set up a paper mill at Corner Brook in while the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company opened a lead-zinc mine on the Buchans River in InBritain awarded the vast, almost uninhabited hinterland of Labrador to Newfoundland rather than to Canada, adding potentially valuable new forest, hydroelectric, and mineral resources.
Politically the years from to were turbulent, as six successive governments failed, widespread corruption was uncovered, and the postwar boom ended in economic stagnation. Labour unions were active, as Joey Smallwood — founded the Newfoundland Federation of Labour in the early s.
Newfoundland remains the only nation that ever voluntarily relinquished democracy.Back in May of I started this site with the idea of setting up a Clarenville High Alumni Site with a Guestbook however over the years the site has grown to be so much more.
Newfoundland Railway, Port Aux Basque Newfoundland and Labrador. See traveler reviews, photos and blog posts. The building of a narrow-gauge trans-island railway in nineteenth century Newfoundland was a reckless and even desperate experiment.
The island was poor, the population small, and the local politics rife with bitter sectarian conflict. Click on this image for a larger view in a new window: The Newfie Bullet #, at the Humbermouth display in Corner Brook Newfoundland.
The engine was ordered by the Newfoundland Railway in September from the Baldwin Company of Philadelphia, USA, and was delivered to St John's, Newfoundland, in I have been walking the route of the Newfoundland Railway for well over 11 years now, the purpose behind it? Too document what is left, save what i can, and.
Steamindex home page. Aberconway, Lord Charles Benjamin Bright McLaren was born in Edinburgh on 22 May Died in London on 23 January He was educated at Edinburgh University then at the Univerisities of Bonn and Heidelberg.