Edit on GitHub 6. The past situation of one piano teacher teaching a very useful method and another knowing nothing about it, or two teachers teaching completely opposite methods, should not occur.
Due to the age of the participants, all subjects took at least one medication for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and arthritis. Recruitment and consent Participants were recruited from local community centers in the city of Barcelona. Advertising was done through posters and talks about the piano training program we offered.
Piano lessons were totally free, but a requirement for participation was a high interest in the activity and time available for practice. Additionally, both control and experimental groups were asked to sign a consent form and offered a report of their neuropsychological assessment after completion of the study.
Psychological assessment The measures that formed part of this study were decided with the collaboration of a professional neuropsychologist with long experience in the assessment of elderly population Jordi Ortiz-Gil.
Furthermore, before the start of the study the person in charge of running all tests Sofia Seinfeld was exhaustively trained to ensure that the neuropsychological assessments were administered in a standardized and neutral way.
The person in charge of administering the tests and questionnaires that formed part of the study was an author of this paper not blinded to membership of the experimental and control groups.
All participants in the piano group were tested 2 weeks before the start of the piano training program and up to 2 weeks after the last piano lesson. Consequently, the time length between the pre-test and post-test was controlled for both groups.
Each of the two neuropsychological evaluations that formed part of the study were carried out in a single session each lasting around one hour and a half.
We believe that this is an adequate duration for the assessment since Uttl et al. Importantly, all tests and questionnaires were given in the same order to avoid possible order effect differences between the two groups. The evaluation battery consisted of three main blocks: The specific test and questionnaires that formed part of the neuropsychological assessment are detailed below.
Subjects were questioned for age and years of education. The type of medications that participants were prescribed were also registered before and after the program implementation. Furthermore, participants of the control group self-assessed the leisure activities that they practiced during the 4 months.
Finally, subjects of both groups estimated the frequency they practiced per week in days per week. It is a standardized test widely used as a brief screening of dementia or cognitive impairment by assessing a set of cognitive functions simply and quickly. The maximum points that a person can obtain in this inventory is It has been adapted and translated for Spanish population with a good test-retest reliability and validity Lobo et al.
The FAB Dubois et al. FAB is composed of six subtests that explore conceptualization, item generation, motor sequencing, interference sensitivity, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy.
The maximum score a person can obtain is Since pronunciation of Spanish words can be derived from their spelling, the WAT utilizes low-frequency Spanish words whose accents have been removed to make pronunciation ambiguous.
This test consists of a device that contains a tapping key and a mechanical counter to record the number of taps given in an interval of time. The five trails were then averaged to get a single measure of performance.
The Grooved Pegboard Klove, is a test that measures complex motor coordination and manual dexterity. Subjects were instructed to insert in each of the holes a peg that has a ridged along one side. If the peg is not positioned correctly toward the slotted holes they cannot be introduced.
The score is obtained from the time to complete the task with both hands independently. The test entails the presentation of nine red and white blocks that participants must use to construct replicas of a model design presented by the examiner in a certain time period Lezak, The score is obtained from the number of replicas that the subjects can construct in a given time for simple model design 60 s and for complex model design s.
In DSF the participant has to verbally recall a sequence of numbers exactly as they were given by the examiner. Task difficulty gradually increases by having to remember each time longer sequences.
The test finishes once the participant has failed to repeat correctly both attempts of the same sequence. DSF and DSB are administered similarly, except for the fact that in DSB the subject is instructed to repeat a sequence of numbers exactly in the reverse order.
Studies have shown that while DSF measures attention efficiency, DSB is a more complex task related to executive function, since a mental double-tracking task that implies memory and a reversing operation simultaneously has to be made Lezak, The amplitudes of the recalled sequences were also taken into account for the analysis.
A board included in the Wechsler Memory Scale, 3rd Ed. In SSF the participant must tap the blocks in the same order as the examiner has done in a prearranged sequence immediately before.
In contrast, in the SSB the participants are asked to repeat the sequence of taps exactly in the reverse order. The test increases in difficulty as the number of taps included in a sequence increases.Dec 10, · What topic about piano is easy and good to research on?
I am doing a research paper about piano and I need a research question to research on. I chose piano because I learning how to play it but I do not know what to research attheheels.com: Resolved. Nov 01, · Learning to play the piano is a multi-modal and complex activity that requires learning to map visual information from the musical notation to a motor response that produces a sound.
Furthermore, playing the piano is also a motivating activity that allows the learner to have a constant and immediate auditory feedback of his performance. A perforated paper roll was passed over a cylinder containing apertures connected to tubes that were in turn connected to the piano action. When a hole in the paper passed over an aperture, a current of air passed through a tube and caused the corresponding hammer to strike the string.
From the Dulcimer to the modern grand piano, we have the history of the forever stunning instrument: the piano. The first piano was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori in Italy in the year His piano was a four-octave instrument, with hammers striking the strings just as they do on a modern piano.3/5(4).
Research on “The Piano Lesson” Order Description. Fall Research on The Piano Lesson Be sure to review the syllabus statements relevant to the research paper (for information such as length=2, words), including Academic Integrity and Plagiarism statements.
Writing Research Papers in Music - A Guide A successful term paper is the result of examining a topic or question through the reading, analysis, and synthesis of a variety of sources of information.