This is the most controversial post I have ever written in ten years of blogging. I wrote it because I was very angry at a specific incident. Not meant as a criticism of feminism, so much as of a certain way of operationalizing feminism.
Avoiding gender bias does not mean pretending that men and women are the same. There are three main types of gender bias: Alpha bias - this occurs when the differences between men and women are exaggerated.
Therefore, stereotypically male and female characteristics may be emphasised.
Beta bias -this occurs when the differences between men and women are minimised. This often happens when findings obtained from men are applied to women without additional validation. So gender differences distorted to maintain the status quo of male power.
Feminist argue that although gender differences are minimal or non-existent, they are used against women to maintain male power. He then inappropriately generalized his findings to women beta bias and also claimed women generally reached lower level of moral development androcentrism.
However, her research is, arguably, also alpha biased, as male and female moral reasoning is more similar than her work suggests.
All his theories are androcentric, most obviously: Men predominate at senior researcher level. This assumes that men and women respond in the same ways to the experimental situation. Reducing Gender Bias in Psychology AO3 Equal opportunity legislation and feminist psychology have performed the valuable functions of reducing institutionalised gender bias and drawing attention to sources of bias and under-researched areas in psychology like childcare, sexual abuse, dual burden working and prostitution.
Learning Check This activity will help you to: Identify gender biases in psychological theories Discuss the impact of biased research on society Critically assess gender-biased theories Below are two examples of research that could be considered gender biased.
Working in pairs or small groups, you need to do the following: Identify aspects of the research that could be considered gender biased 2.
Identify and explain the type of gender bias that is present 3. Suggest the impact that these research examples could have on society You could look, for example, at how the research might uphold or reinforce gender stereotypes, or be used to disempower women in society.
The Psychodynamic View of Personality and Moral Development Freud and many of his followers believed that biological differences between men and women had major consequences for psychological development.
Freud believed that gender divergence begins at the onset of the phallic stage, where the girl realises that she has no penis, and starts to feel inferior to boys penis envy. This view of gender divergence in personality development has implications for other aspects of development. In boys, immoral behavior is regulated through the mechanism of castration anxiety — men obey the rules because of an unconscious fear that their father will take away their penis.
In the Freudian view, the girl has already had to accept her castration as a fait accompli, which raises important questions about the relative moral strength of men and women.
The Biological View of Mental Illness The biomedical view of mental illness, which approaches behavioral and psychological abnormality as a manifestation of underlying pathological processes on the biological level, dominates discussion of mental illness. In the biomedical viewillnesses such as depression can be explained in terms of chemical imbalances causing malfunction in the parts of the brain associated with emotion.
When explaining why twice as many women as men are diagnosed with depression, adherents of the biomedical view tend to suggest that this is due to hormonal differences, and point to the existence of, for example, post-natal depression to show how fluctuations in female sex hormones can lead to abnormalities of mood.
Cultures may differ from one another in many ways, so that the findings of psychological research conducted in one culture may not apply directly to another.
General Background In order to fulfil its aspiration of explaining human thinking and behavior, psychology must address the huge diversity in people around the globe. At the same time, people are affected by a range of factors that are specific to the cultural group in which they developed and within which they live.
Psychologists should always attempt to account for the ways in which culture affects thinking and behavior. However, this has not always been the case.
Psychology is a discipline that evolved within a very specific cultural context. Psychology is predominantly a white, Euro-American enterprise: Consequently, it has incorporated a particular world-view that of the industrialised West into the ways it tries to understand people.
This can have consequences. Psychologists may overlook the importance of cultural diversity in understanding human behavior, resulting in theories that are scientifically inadequate.
They may also privilege their own worldview over those that emerge from other cultures, leading to research that either intentionally or unintentionally supports racist and discriminatory practices in the real world.Rosalind Hursthouse Applying Virtue Ethics to Our Treatment of the Other Animals Applying virtue ethics to moral issues should be straightforward.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and attheheels.com is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest.
As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups. How the Democrats Lost Their Way on Immigration. In the past decade, liberals have avoided inconvenient truths about the issue.
Philosophical study demolishing the arguments usually put forward against corporal punishment. Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Nature Vs Nurture Essay. The first paragraph of your essay should present your main point or thesis statement, which the entire essay will be built on.
Introduction Starting Sentence Option 1: Educational psychology refers to the study of [psychology in education/how children learn].