The paradigm[ edit ] Psychology and behaviorism[ edit ] Watson named the approach behaviorism as a form of revolution against the then prevalent use of introspection to study the mind.
Saul McLeodupdated There are various approaches in contemporary psychology. An approach is a perspective i. There may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions. You may wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach is correct and others wrong.
Most psychologists would agree that no one perspective is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.
Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior. For this reason, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior.
Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches sometimes called perspectives in psychology. Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people and animals as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment.
Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors called stimuli affect observable behavior called the response. The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.
Though looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated with the sound of the bell and food. The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies. These include systematic desensitization for phobias step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once and aversion therapy.
Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior.
Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology e.
Behaviorism rejects the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behavior. Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R Stimulus-Response units.
Behaviorism has been criticized in the way it under-estimates the complexity of human behavior. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans, and it cannot explain, for example, the speed in which we pick up language.
There must be biological factors involved. Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults. He also believed that people have little free will to make choices in life.
Instead, our behavior is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences. It is the original psychodynamic theory and inspired psychologists such as Jung and Erikson to develop their own psychodynamic theories. Freud, the founder of psychoanalysisexplained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior.
Freud used three main methods of accessing the unconscious mind: He believed that the unconscious mind consisted of three components: If this conflict is not resolved, we tend to use defense mechanisms to reduce our anxiety.
Psychoanalysis attempts to help patients resolve their inner conflicts. It shows how early experiences affect adult personality. Stimulation of different areas of the body is important as the child progresses through the important developmental stages. Too much or too little can have bad consequences later.
The most important stage is the phallic stage where the focus of the libido is on the genitals. However, it has been criticized in the way that it over emphasizes the importance of sexuality and under emphasized of the role of social relationships.
Nevertheless, psychoanalysis has been greatly contributory to psychology in that it has encouraged many modern theorists to modify it for the better, using its basic principles, but eliminating its major flaws.
Humanism Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person know as holism. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior, not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving.
The humanistic perspective centers on the view that each person is unique and individual, and has the free will to change at any time in his or her lives.Jan 06, · Psychology 11/2/15 Behaviorism Behaviorism is a psychological perspective that focuses on an individual’s behavior.
The main theorist behind this perspective was John Broadus Watson, who established the psychological school of behaviorism. 5 Major Perspectives in Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave. In this lesson, you'll get an overview of the five major perspectives that have guided modern psychological research.
The five major perspectives in psychology are biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive and humanistic. Each perspective provides its own view on the .
Behavioral psychology differs from other perspectives.
One of the major benefits of behaviorism is that it allowed researchers to investigate observable behavior in a scientific and systematic manner.
Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person (know as holism). Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior, not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. The cognitive perspective differs from the behaviorist perspective in two distinct ways.
First, cognitive psychology acknowledges the existence of internal mental states disregarded by behaviorists. Examples of these states are belief, desire, ideas and motivation (non-observable states).