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This article begins by reviewing the history of brands and the origins of brand management. It then turns to the two main types of brand management, exploring the philosophies and organizational strategies associated with each. Next, it examines how the rise of Internet commerce and advertising has affected brand management.
Finally, it turns to the future of brand management, anticipating what changes the field will likely undergo as the 21st Century continues. While all products or services can eventually be copied, brands are not easily imitated.
This is the primary goal of brand management: This added value is called brand equity. The term "brand" is understood to have a number of different meanings. Others use the term in a more expansive sense, to denote the larger bundle of trademarks associated with intellectual property, including product design and packaging, advertising content, sounds, domain names, as well as innumerable other items.
Finally, still others use "brand" in an even more holistic sense, to indicate the company that owns a given brand. The field of brand management accepts and engages with all of these different meanings of the term.
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, brand management has expanded its scope in order to deal with the challenges and opportunities presented by the Internet. As a global marketplace, the Internet poses new legal questions about brand names and trademarks; questions that were long ago resolved in the traditional marketplace.
The future of brand management will likely include many other changes besides those instigated by the Internet. The field has long been criticized for a lack of accountability, as no reliable measurements have yet been devised to measure the performance of brand managers.
New research into brand metrics promises to change this situation in the near future Keller, Application History of Brands The roots of brand management can be traced to the late 19th Century, when a number of business owner-entrepreneurs working independently of one another established the first successful, nationally-recognized branded products Low, Before this time, brands and advertising in general had been associated with disreputable vendors, such as quack medicine salesmen.
But beginning in approximatelyand facilitated by Civil War-era improvements in long-distance transportation and communication, as well as advancements in the art of packaging, the first hugely successful brands were born.
By the turn of the 20th Century, consumers were beginning to associate brands with quality and consistency, two characteristics largely missing in unbranded manufactured goods of the period Low, During these early years in the history of brands, what we would now refer to as brand management was carried out exclusively by firm owners or presidents.
The creators of the first successful brands were visionaries, and the novelty of branding made managing newly-created brands the personal project of these forward-looking business owners.
Often these men developed brands despite resistance at every level of their organization; from the board of directors to the sales force, company employees were hesitant to embrace changes they did not fully understand Low, No single management philosophy or organizational structure predominated during this period.
Rather, brands were managed with an "intuitive and common-sense approach" by their entrepreneurial-minded creators Low,p. Only after the market leadership of branded products was established did the management of brands become the domain of professionals. Between andthe management of brands was transferred from the chief executive suite to the control of specialized managers, who worked with advertising agencies to promote existing brands and bring new brands into being Low, During this period, a functional style of managing brands emerged.
This first generation of middle managers entrusted with managing brands represented "an entirely new class of businessmen," which was not made up of independent, creative entrepreneurs, but of salaried professionals trained in functional specialties and rational problem-solving Low,p.
These men used their pragmatic skill-set to conduct market research and product testing, create appropriate advertising, develop attractive packaging, prepare sales manuals, and run sales promotions.
Managing brands became team-based and highly reliant on a functionally organized company model.The paper towel is one of the greatest inventions ever and, frankly, I think too many of us take them for granted. Think about it: They’re not only invaluable for cleaning up spills and other messes, but the best ones can also handle tough jobs like cleaning the kitchen stove.
The role of brand logos in ﬁrm performance This paper builds on extant research by examining the impact of brand logos on customer commitment and ﬁrm performance and extends current research in three critical ways. First, this study investigates the mechanism(s) through which.
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Green Eye-Ease paper makes reading easier on . Brand Packaging and Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case of FMCG Products Misbah EhsanSamreenlodhi, unique, can create an iconic brand image, supports in affirming brand name, retain its distinctiveness, and stands out on the shelf.