It is used to refer to ethnic, religious, cultural, social, political and economic groups.
It is used to refer to ethnic, religious, cultural, social, political and economic Research paper on illiteracy. It is employed with reference to small minorities, regional linguistic groups, and even to nations as a whole. The same term is used to denote both primitive tribal communities which have remained isolated from the mainstream of modern civilization and communities which have been forcefully deprived of their heritage by the actions of a powerful adversary from within or outside their society.
Obviously any term which is used in so many different ways and to refer to so many different social situations loses something of its value as a concept for social scientists. This does not imply that any of the usages are wrong, only that a further classification is required for purposes of precision.
This becomes of the utmost importance when the objective is to evolve strategies and recommend programmes to improve the social conditions of these people.
Therefore we propose to examine this concept in detail, to categorize and subdivide the various groups falling under this broad heading to distinguish those whose condition arise from different causes and whose upliftment can be only brought about by different remedies.
But in all cases the privilege which is lacking and the reason for the deficiency are not the same. On closer examination we discover that the privileges are many and the causes of the deficit are many too. Privilege is based on the possession of or access to a resource - physical, social or psychological.
Those who possess the resource obtain a power or advantage from it which expresses as a benefit or privilege to that community. Those who do not possess or have access to the resource or are unable to utilize it lack the power and the privilege.
There is a commonly held notion that all UPCs have been the victims of conscious oppression and exploitation by more powerful and prosperous communities. But this is an erroneous and overly simplified view.
Possession or access to a privilege may be the result of natural conditions such as geography or material resources. Those living in favorable habitats such as a fertile valley gain an adaptive advantage and develop faster and further than those living in less hospitable environments.
Privilege also derives from social factors such as education. As educated population is able to respond more effectively to new life opportunities and new technologies. In addition to physical and social conditions, privilege is determined by cultural and psychological factors as well.
For example, a community in which traits of individual initiative and risk-taking are dominant can avail of enormous opportunities open to the enterprising pioneer, whereas communities in which authority and social harmony are dominant values may be slower or innovate.
Four Types of UPCs Possession of, access to and the capacity to utilize a physical, social or psychological resource may be acquired in several ways. Conversely, the lack of a resource which is the basis of underprivileged status may be the result of several conditions.
The first, which has already been noted, is simply the coincidence of nature. Certain communities benefit from more advantageous natural or social conditions than others. These communities develop politically, economically, or socially at a more rapid pace; while the less fortunate, less privileged develop more slowly and remain backward or primitive.
Note that in this case backwardness is not the result of any outside agency, but simply a natural condition. The possession of any resource and the privilege it bestows tend to be accompanied by additional advantages. For instance, educational privilege generated by the proximity of a school opens better opportunities for employment and a higher status in society.
Therefore we can speak of "compound privileges", advantages which provide multidimensional benefits to the privileged. Conversely, those who lack one basic privilege often lack a host of others as well.
The educationally backward also tend to be economically and socially backward. When the factors contributing to backwardness are many - absence of material resources, absence of social infrastructure, absence of psychological capacities - we may refer to the community as "deprived".Research Paper 3 Active Directory Federation Services is a highly secure, highly extensible, and Internet-scalable identity access solution that allows organizations to authenticate users .
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Literacy is traditionally defined as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy.
A more broad interpretation is literacy as knowledge and competence in a specific area. The concept of literacy has evolved in meaning.
We’re hearing a lot recently about fake news, and with the debates from different sides of the political spectrum so polarised, it can be difficult to even know what’s real. So let’s take a break for a moment and talk about the theory of something we all agree is made up: Money.